The creation of images by the human eye, telescopes, binoculars and cameras are all investigated. Plane and curved mirrorslenses and spherical refracting media are studied using ray diagrams, the mirror equation and the Lens’ maker equation.

  • Plane Mirrors
  • Curved Mirrors
  • The Mirror Equation
  • Ray Diagrams for Curved Mirrors
  • Thin Lenses
  • The Lens’ Maker Equation
  • Ray Diagrams for Thin Lenses
  • Magnification by Convex Lens
  • Cameras
  • Spherical Refracting Surfaces
  • Practice Problems

Radiation displays characteristics of being both a particle and a wave. This wave-particle duality of light is investigated using Young’s Double-slip experiment and Einstein’s Photoelectric effect. Properties such as reflectionrefractioncritical angleSnell’s law and total internal reflection are discussed. Rainbowssunsets, blue skies and fiber optics are all explained.

  • Wave-Particle Duality
  • Young’s Double-Slit Experiment & The Photoelectric Effect
  • Reflection & Refraction
  • Refractive Index
  • Snell’s Law & Brewster’s Angle
  • Total Internal Reflection
  • The Human Eye, Twinkling of Stars, Mirages, Optical Fibers, Rainbows
  • Practice Problems

Electromagnetism, or radiation, is the interaction between self-propagating electric and magnetic fields. This concept is explained, together with calculation of root mean square values, the Poynting vector and radiation pressureMaxwell’s Rainbow, also known as the Electromagnetic spectrum is discussed for all forms of known radiation.

  • Properties of Electromagnetic Waves
  • Root Mean Square Values
  • Energy Transport & The Poynting Vector
  • Radiation Pressure
  • The Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • Practice Problems

In this chapter we introduce the Biot-Savart method for calculating the magnetic field due to current-carrying wires. Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction is explained, together with examples of its application to everyday devices such as transformers and the electric motor. Ampere’s law and Maxwell’s equations are also introduced to explain the behavior and link between electricity and magnetism.

  • Biot-Savart Law
  • Magnetic Field Due to an Infinitely Long Wire
  • Magnetic Field Due to a Curved Wire
  • Force on a Current-Carrying Wire Due to a Magnetic Field
  • The Electric Motor
  • Ampere’s Law
  • 3-D Coordinate Systems & Volume Elements
  • Faraday’s Law of Induction
  • Applications of Faraday’s Law of Induction
  • Transformers
  • Maxwell’s Equation
  • Practice Problems

The phenomenon of magnetism is investigated through an analysis of electronic spin properties. The origin of Earth’s magnetism is explained, together with its influence on the creation of the Aurora Borealis or “Northern Lights.” Magnetic force and helical motion properties are also derived.

  • Magnetic Fields
  • Electron Properties & Magnetism
  • Earth’s Magnetic Field
  • Aurora Borealis – Northern Lights
  • Magnetic Force
  • Helical Motion
  • Practice Problems

Gauss’ law is introduced for calculating the electric field due to charge distributions with high levels of spatial symmetry. The topics of electric fluxelectric potential and electric potential energy are explained.

  • Gauss’s Law & Electric Flux
  • Electric Field Due to Non-Uniform Charge Distributions
  • Electric Potential Energy
  • Electric Potential
  • Practice Problems

Electric fields are a disturbance of space due to the presence of electric charge. The net electric field due to a system of point charges is calculated, then extended to systems of continuous charge distributions.

  • Electric Field Due to Point Charges
  • Electric Field Due to Continuous Charge Distributions
  • 3-D Coordinate Systems & Volume Elements
  • Electric Field Due to a Line of Charge
  • Electric Field Due to a Ring of Charge
  • Electric Field Due to a Charged Disk
  • Practice Problems

The application of an electric current through a conducting loop of wire is shown to obey the basic conservation laws of charge and energy. Arrangements of resistors in series and parallel are compared, and the application of Kirchoff’s loop and junction rules are developed.

  • Resistors in Series
  • Resistors in Parallel
  • Kirchoff’s Laws
  • Junction & Loop Rule
  • Practice Problems

Electric currents are described from the foundation of atomic structure, including the ideas of electronic energy levels and band structure. The measurement and usefulness of current density is derived and analyzed.

  • Atomic Structure
  • Conduction Band & Energy Levels
  • Generation of Electric Currents
  • Current Density
  • Practice Problems

Electrical components such as batteriescapacitors and resistors are investigated. The parameters of resistivityresistance and conductance are shown to be related to each other and used in the application of Ohm’s law.

  • Batteries
  • Capacitors
  • Ohm’s Law
  • Resistance, Resistivity & Conductance
  • Practice Problems