# PHYSICS CHAPTERS

The science of everyday phenomena.

### Chapter 10. Atoms, Charges & Coulomb’s Law

In this chapter, the calculation method of Coulomb’s electrostatic force is shown, and explained from the basic structure of the atom. Electric dipoles are also studied.

### Chapter 11. Batteries, Capacitors & Resistors

Electrical components such as batteries, capacitors and resistors are investigated. The parameters of resistivity, resistance and conductance are shown to be related to each other and used in the application of Ohm’s law.

### Chapter 12. Electric Current

Electric currents are described from the foundation of atomic structure, including the ideas of electronic energy levels and band structure. The measurement of current density is also introduced.

### Chapter 13. Circuits

The application of an electric current through a conducting loop of wire is shown to obey the basic conservation laws of charge and energy. Arrangements of resistors in series and parallel are compared, and the application of Kirchoff’s loop and junction rules are developed.

### Chapter 14. Electric Fields

The disturbance of space known as an electric field is introduced. The net electric field due to a system of point charges is calculated, then extended to systems of continuous charge distributions.

### Chapter 15. Gauss’ Law, Flux & Electric Potential Energy

A simple method, known as Gauss’ law, is introduced for calculating the electric field due to charge distributions with high levels of spatial symmetry. The topics of electric flux, electric potential and electric potential energy are explained.

### Chapter 16. Magnetic Fields

The phenomenon of magnetism is investigated through an analysis of electronic spin properties. The origin of Earth’s magnetism is explained, together with its influence on the creation of the Aurora Borealis or “Northern Lights”. Magnetic force and helical motion properties are also studied.

### Chapter 17. Magnetic Current & Faraday’s Law of Induction

In this chapter we introduce the Biot-Savart method for calculating the magnetic field due to current-carrying wires. Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction is explained, together with examples of its application to everyday devices such as transformers and the electric motor. Ampere’s law and Maxwell’s equations are also introduced to explain the behavior of and the link between electricity and magnetism.

### Chapter 18. Electromagnetic Waves

Electromagnetism, or radiation, is the interaction between self-propagating electric and magnetic fields. This concept is explained, together with calculation of root mean square values, the Poynting vector and radiation pressure. Maxwell’s Rainbow, also known as the Electromagnetic spectrum is discussed for all forms of known radiation.