The science of everyday phenomena.

Chapter 19. Optics. Reflection, Refraction & Dispersion

Radiation displays characteristics of being both a particle and a wave. This wave-particle duality of light is investigated using Young’s Double-slip experiment and Einstein’s Photoelectric effect. Properties such as reflection, refraction, critical angle, Snell’s law and total internal reflection are discussed. Rainbows, sunsets, blue skies and fiber optics are all explained.

Chapter 20. Images. Real & Virtual, Mirrors & Lenses

The creation of images by the human eye, telescopes, binoculars and cameras are all investigated. Plane and curved mirrors, lenses and spherical refracting media are all studied using ray diagrams, the mirror equation and the Lens’ maker equation.