Earth Science Chapters

The Magnificent Blue Marble

The building block of the Universe is the atom. In this chapter, the structure and properties of atoms, elements and minerals are explored. The characteristics and analysis of elements are…

Rocks hold the geologic key to Earth’s history. We examine the three classes of rocks: igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic, together with the methods of rock formation, rock structure and composition,…

Running water is responsible for shaping Earth’s landscape more than every other environmental agent combined. We investigate numerous such landscapes around the world. A non-renewable natural resource, the planet’s freshwater…

Natural disasters and other geologic changes to our planet’s topography can be traced to the same source, and are the growing pains of a still-forming Earth. The consequences of a…

The origins and nature of earthquakes, mountain building and several geologic features are studied in this chapter. Seismic waves and fault boundaries are examined around the world.

In this lecture, the different classes of volcanoes are described: Shield, Cinder Cone & Stratovolcanoes. We explain the difference between magma and lava, and the reasons why the nature of…

Earth’s fossil record is used to explain the Geologic Time Scale. Milestones in the planet’s history are investigated using the fossil record. The birth or modern geology, types of radioactivity,…

The last undiscovered frontier on Earth are the oceans. It is the vast body of salt water that covers almost three quarters of the planet’s surface. We know more about…

Our planet’s last line of defense from the extremely harsh environment of space is our atmosphere. Accumulated over billions of years from outgassing volcanoes, gases have collected into a thin…